These stiffness factors are ignored for axisymmetric membrane elements. There are no hourglass stiffness factors or scale factors for the nondefault enhanced hourglass control formulation. For axisymmetric membrane elements the positive normal is defined by a 90� counterclockwise rotation from the direction going from node 1 to node 2.
No detailed description will be made for the Vicat softening temperature of an ABS resin as a material of the plate for filtration, since its testing method is described in the JIS K 7206 . 4, an ultrasonic horn is activated on the protrusion of a plate for filtration via a microporous filtration membrane so that the microporous filtration membrane can be joined to the plate for filtration through the protrusion. The present invention has been conceived in consideration of the above problems. However, in the fusion bonding by ultrasonic wave, which tends to cause uneven heating, controlling the temperature to below 140° C. is not preferable from the view point of securing a stable performance of a membrane element, and therefore it is assumed that the temperature was controlled to above 140° C. This is also apparent from Japanese Patent Application Laid-open No. that discloses that nonwoven fabric made of synthetic resin fibers, which acts as a substrate, is partially fused and hence fatigue cracking is caused during the ultrasonic fusion bonding.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY As described above, the present invention has high industrial applicability since it has a feature enabling the reuse of the membrane element and the like. As an example of the microporous filtration membrane 1, a Yumicron membrane manufactured by Yuasa Corporation, which has a number of micro pores with average pore size of 0.4 μm, can be used. The microporous filtration member 1 having such average pore size is called as a microfiltration membrane according to the definition of JIS K 3802. The aforesaid plate 2 as used is made of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer resin. Providing each microporous filtration membrane 1 on the plate 2 in tension is achieved by joining the peripheral part of the plate 2 to the microporous filtration membrane without fusing the nonwoven fabric acting as the substrate 11. 2, when pressed by a linear-shaped hot plate disposed along the positioning line 21, the plate 2 is softened to have a recess, into which the microporous filtration membrane 1 is drawn, as represented by arrows.
“O” ring seals 6, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e and 6f are shown as solid dark rectangles at the principle points where the membrane element or its various nozzles are connected to ports of the membrane element 1, the pressure vessel 2, its end plates 2a and 2b. At the center of the RFP membrane element 1 is a porous core tube 3 around which the membrane sheets 15 and spacers are spirally wound. 1, the porous core tube 3 contains a tube plug 4 at the product end of membrane element 1 to prevent mixing of feed and permeate at the product end in the porous plate 5 which serves as a conduit for the product leaving the pressure vessel 2 through a permeate nozzle 11. Both lateral edges of the membrane element 1 are potted in a low viscosity adhesive 7a and 7b which seals the membrane and spacer ends and bonds the membranes and spacers to the optional end cups 9a and 9b. In place of end cups 9a and 9b the membrane element 1 can be optionally sealed in a glue “cup” of the same dimensions.
The roots and weight functions for 2 × 2 Gauss quadrature are given in Table 1 . in which is the thickness of the element, is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix, and the matrices , , and are given by , , and , respectively. For element sizes not listed, please call or email Synder Filtration for details. We can design an element to fit your exact needs – just specify the element outer diameter or vessel/ housing inner diameter , element inner diameter , and length. Elements are available with or without a controlled bypass tail. Trials should be conducted to determine optimal application conditions.
Not having proper pre-treatment can also lead to premature scaling and fouling of the membranes, and subsequent decreased output and life time expectancy of the membranes. While there are several options when increasing the efficiencies and lowering the waste from reverse osmosis systems, many of these concerns can be addressed by starting with the membrane element. The remaining solution is then circulated through the system while carefully monitoring the pressure differential .
Skid-mounted device effectively allocates and stores machine for process and modular systems in the field of solid-liquid separation. A CMF skid-mounted device is designed by order and fully optimized as process flow, which includes CMF unit, power part, control part and supporting pipelines, valves and instruments. Both high rejection and high flux membranes are developed with Toray’s extensive experience in polymer chemistry. Both elements and their pads may define their own options that parametrize their work. For example, some audio decoder may have an option named bitrate that represents bitrate of the output data.
Once the static calculation has been approved by the building authorities, the construction drawings are prepared. Particularly with regard to design elements, these have to be coordinated with the planner and client. In contrast to conventional constructions, the weight of the material (approx. 1-1.5 kg/m²) is negligible.
Utilizing AXEON’s proprietary HF5 Technology™, theTF membraneincreases efficiency and provides a 40% recovery rate and 25% less waste than standard membrane elements. High active membrane area and the unique multi-leaf design provides a better system operation for the user. The membrane can also be retrofitted onto existing systems already in use in the field. TheAXEON TF membraneis shipped 100% dry for convenient handling, and to maintain the integrity of the element’s performance. Meet your customer’s higher production rate demands while sending less water to the drain with the AXEON TF RO Membrane. 1 is a perspective view of a membrane element of the present invention.
5 and 5a are views of the non-recessed portion of the membrane element 1 of FIG. 5 the solid spiralling lines represent the membrane sheets 15 and the spaces between represent the feed-concentrate and permeate flow channels with spacers and adhesive 7a omitted. Openings contained in feed end cup 9a allow the concentrate to pass out of the circumferential chamber 8 into an open space about a feed nozzle 12 and thence exit from the pressure vessel 2 through a concentrate nozzle 13.
For the convenience of description, the local Cartesian coordinate system involved in this section is based on the way as shown in Figure 4. For the local Cartesian coordinate systems with the origins at the Gauss points, the approach to determine is similar. The derivatives of the shape functions with respect to the local coordinates can be obtained by substituting into the above equations. Then the strain matrices and can be obtained by substituting the above equations into and , respectively.
This cross-flow removes cake layer formed on the membrane surface as the filtration progresses. In today’s marketplace there is a growing demand for higher production rates from RO membranes. Many light commercial applications require high water output in which standard thin-film membranes have not been able to meet. Many tap water reverse osmosis membrane elements were initially designed to achieve specified flow and rejection rates under only 15% recovery, thus dispensing a lot of water to the drain.